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Challenges in Water Electrolyzer
Challenges in Water Electrolyzer
Ru-Embedded Carbon Fabric
Ru-Embedded Carbon Fabric
Amine Chemistry of Porous CO2 Adsorbents
Amine Chemistry of Porous CO2 Adsorbents
Boronization of Nickel Foam for Sustainable Electrochemical Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia
Boronization of Nickel Foam for Sustainable Electrochemical Reduction of Nitrate to Ammonia
How Reproducible are Surface Areas Calculated from the BET Equation?
How Reproducible are Surface Areas Calculated from the BET Equation?
Extensive Screening of Solvent-linked Porous Polymers through Friedel-Crafts Reaction for Gas Adsorption
Extensive Screening of Solvent-linked Porous Polymers through Friedel-Crafts Reaction for Gas Adsorption
Alkyl-linked porphyrin porous polymers for gas capture and precious metal adsorption
Alkyl-linked porphyrin porous polymers for gas capture and precious metal adsorption
Quantifying the nitrogen effect on CO2 capture using isoporous network polymers
Quantifying the nitrogen effect on CO2 capture using isoporous network polymers
Direct Access to Primary Amines and Particle Morphology Control in Nanoporous CO2 Sorbents
Direct Access to Primary Amines and Particle Morphology Control in Nanoporous CO2 Sorbents
Enhanced Sorption Cycle Stability and Kinetics of CO2 on Lithium Silicates Using the Lithium Ion Channeling Effect of TiO2 Nanotubes
Enhanced Sorption Cycle Stability and Kinetics of CO2 on Lithium Silicates Using the Lithium Ion Channeling Effect of TiO2 Nanotubes
  • Thiourea-based extraction and deposition of gold for electroless nickel immersion gold process

    J. Son, Y. Hong, C. T. Yavuz, J. Han
    Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 59, 16, 8086-8092
    2020
    Thiourea-based extraction and deposition of gold for electroless nickel immersion gold process
    Gold electroless plating for surface finishing of electronic circuits, named electroless nickel immersion gold (ENIG), is widely practiced in the electronics packaging industry. Noncyanide substitutions of the current cyanide bath for immersion gold are being sought for environmental and safety reasons. Herein, as a promising option, a bath using a noncyanide gold complex, Au(I)–thiourea, was developed. The kinetics of gold deposition were estimated with respect to gold concentration, thiourea concentration, pH, and temperature; the transfer coefficient of gold concentration and activation energy were found to be 0.697 and 36.69 kJ·mol–1, respectively. In addition, the quality of gold coating in terms of corrosion resistance was verified by electrochemical analysis. The relationship between particle size and corrosion resistance of the coating was confirmed by morphology observation through scanning electron microscopy and Tafel plots. The corrosion potential of the gold layer with thiourea was found to be −62 mV, close to that of the layer using a thiosulfate–sulfite bath, with an advantage of faster deposition rate. The results suggest Au(I)–thiourea can serve as an eco-friendly and field-implementable option for the ENIG process, helping to realize a closed-loop process of gold: recovering the precious metal from electronic wastes and reusing it in new products.
  • Quaternary Ammonium Salt Grafted Nanoporous Covalent Organic Polymer for Atmospheric CO2 Fixation and Cyclic Carbonate Formation

    D. Kim, S. Subramanian, D. Thirion, Y. Song, M. Otaibi, A. Jamal, C. T. Yavuz
    Catal. Today, 356,527-534
    2020
    Quaternary Ammonium Salt Grafted Nanoporous Covalent Organic Polymer for Atmospheric CO2 Fixation and Cyclic Carbonate Formation
    Non-redox carbon dioxide utilization through cycloaddition of CO₂ to epoxides offers great promise but suffers from lack of heterogeneous catalysts that don’t need additives or pressure. Here we report a systematic post-synthetic modification procedure on a highly porous hydrocarbon framework for efficient grafting of quaternary ammonium salts. The active sites were tuned and characterized while maintaining the porous structure. The metal free and cost-effective catalysts showed quantitative selectivity and very high conversion yields in atmospheric pressure catalysis for cyclic carbonate formation from CO₂ and epoxides. The reaction proceeded without additives or co-catalysts, and tolerant for a wide substrate scope. We found that the steric hindrance of the alkyl units on ammonium salts affect microporosity, CO₂ binding and the kinetics of cycloaddition reactions. The catalysts were also recyclable, an attractive prerequisite for industrial implementation.
  • Quantifying nitrogen effect on CO2 capture using isoporous network polymers

    T. S. Nguyen, C. T. Yavuz
    Chem. Commun., 56, 4273-4275
    2020
    Quantifying nitrogen effect on CO2 capture using isoporous network polymers
    The impact of nitrogen atoms on CO₂ binding was evaluated for two isostructural porous bisimidazole-linked polymers (BILPs), which serendipitously had identical surface areas and pore size distributions, a very rare observation. The two structures differ only in the core of the trialdehyde component, the nitrogen atom (BILP-19) versus benzene ring (BILP-5). Such a slight difference, however, has brought about a stronger CO₂ capture capacity of BILP-19 and hence increased CO₂/N₂ separation capability.
  • Dry reforming of methane by stable Ni-Mo nanocatalysts on single crystalline MgO

    . Song, E. Ozdemir, S. Ramesh, A. Adishev, S. Subramanian, A. Harale, M. Albuali, B. Fadhel, A. Jamal, D. Moon, S. H. Choi, C. T. Yavuz
    Science, 367, 6479, 777-781
    2020
    Dry reforming of methane by stable Ni-Mo nanocatalysts on single crystalline MgO
    Large-scale carbon fixation requires high-volume chemicals production from carbon dioxide. Dry reforming of methane could provide an economically feasible route if coke- and sintering-resistant catalysts were developed. Here, we report a molybdenum-doped nickel nanocatalyst that is stabilized at the edges of a single-crystalline magnesium oxide (MgO) support and show quantitative production of synthesis gas from dry reforming of methane. The catalyst runs more than 850 hours of continuous operation under 60 liters per unit mass of catalyst per hour reactive gas flow with no detectable coking. Synchrotron studies also show no sintering and reveal that during activation, 2.9 nanometers as synthesized crystallites move to combine into stable 17-nanometer grains at the edges of MgO crystals above the Tammann temperature. Our findings enable an industrially and economically viable path for carbon reclamation, and the “Nanocatalysts On Single Crystal Edges” technique could lead to stable catalyst designs for many challenging reactions.
  • Gold recovery using porphyrin-based polymer from electronic waste: Gold desorption and adsorbent regeneration

    J. Son, Y. Hong, G. Han, T. S. Nguyen, C. T. Yavuz, J. Han
    Sci. Total Environ., 704, 135405
    2020
    Gold recovery using porphyrin-based polymer from electronic waste: Gold desorption and adsorbent regeneration
    Electronic wastes containing precious metals have great potential as a sustainable source of such metals. Separation and refining, however, remain complicated, and none of the existing technologies have yet experienced commercialization. A novel porphyrin-based porous polymer, named COP-180, was recently introduced as a powerful adsorbent option, especially for gold, and in this study, aspects of desorption and recovery of adsorbed gold and regeneration of the polymer were investigated. A hydrometallurgical method using non-cyanide leaching agents was developed, and an acid thiourea-based solution was found to be particularly suited for the method based on COP-180 with gold desorption efficiency of 97%. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy spectra demonstrated the unaffected structure of COP-180 after desorption, implying the potential of its reuse. This high desorption efficiency was achieved even without typical aiding agents by means of a formamidine disulfide-mediated route that prevented thiourea consumption, which is considered a major drawback of the otherwise promising reagent. Using this method, the polymer was able to maintain more than 94% desorption efficiency after five times of regeneration. The results suggest that acid thiourea can offer a workable means of recovering gold particularly from the excellent gold-adsorbent of COP-180, and that repeated regeneration is also possible.
  • Catalytic non-redox carbon dioxide fixation in cyclic carbonates

    S. Subramanian§, J. Oppenheim§, D. Kim§, T. S. Nguyen, W. M. H. Silo, B. Kim, W. A. Goddard III, C. T. Yavuz . §: Equal contribution。
    Chem, 5, 3232-3242
    2019
    Catalytic non-redox carbon dioxide fixation in cyclic carbonates
    If cycloaddition of CO₂ to epoxides is to become a viable non-redox CO₂ fixation path, it is crucial that researchers develop an active, stable, selective, metal-free, reusable, and cost-effective catalyst. To this end, we report here a new catalyst that is based on imidazolinium functionality and is synthesized from an unprecedented, one-pot reaction of the widely available monomers terephthalaldehyde and ammonium chloride. We show that this covalent organic polymer (COP)-222 exhibits quantitative conversion and selectivity for a range of substrates under ambient conditions and without the need for co-catalysts, metals, solvent, or pressure. COP-222 is recyclable and has been demonstrated to retain complete retention of activity for over 15 cycles. Moreover, it is scalable to at least a kilogram scale. We determined the reaction mechanism by using quantum mechanics (density functional theory), showing that it involves nucleophilic-attack-driven epoxide ring opening (ND-ERO). This contrasts with the commonly assumed mechanism involving the concerted addition of chemisorbed CO₂.

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